One of the key areas of AfL development in school is questioning. We have been looking at effective use of questioning for some time and staff have embraced the work of Dylan William, Shirley Clarke and, more recently Bill Thompson, who has been in school working with our AfL group. The introduction of Lesson Study this term has enabled us to really progress this work.
We made questioning the overarching area of Lesson Study. In addition to the focus on three pupils representative of different learner groups we decided to look closely at questioning. This enabled us to observe Bill’s recent input at close quarters and also gave us an area that would allow for repeated research regardless of subject or theme. With each Lesson Study we have been able to learn from the questioning observed in the previous one. We began by looking carefully at wait time. Many teachers were surprised by how little time they left after asking a question. Following Lesson Study, staff are consciously making an effort to pause for longer, to give children more time to consider their response rather than rushing for an answer. We have also looked carefully at the ping pong v basketball argument, questions and answers that bounce back and forth between pupil and teacher as opposed to being passed around the room by the children to their peers for a range of responses. As with the ‘no hands up’ sessions this approach ensures all learners are alert and ready to respond rather than only the confident few. Through Lesson Study we have been able to observe learner response and have noticed that in some cases, if children put their hand up and are not chosen, they become more passive in their learning. We have also observed that many will not put their hand up and simply ‘opt out’ seeing this selective process as optional participation. Where ‘no hands up’ has worked best staff have been explicit about the session, explaining to the children that for this particular session they will be using lolly sticks or a name generator. Where this has not been clearly stated some children will continue to put their hand up as a kind of default for each question asked, regardless of whether they will be asked or not.
A recent research lesson gave us the opportunity to look at pre questioning. The teacher told certain children that after a film clip he would be asking them specific things about what they had seen. The questions were targeted to key children and differentiated accordingly. This gave the children a focus and time to consider their responses. The class were also told that those answering would be able to chose peers to help them, using the basketball technique thus engaging the rest of the class. Asking a question and giving the children time to discuss responses with talk partners before answering has also enabled pupils to give more thoughtful and considered responses and again, the opportunity to observe this process through Lesson Study has furthered our understanding of how such an approach to questioning can have a positive impact on learning. As with all aspects of Lesson Study, the conversation and professional dialogue generated around the use of open and closed questions, wait time, learner response, talk partners and more has been powerful and positive, leading to changes in approach that we hope with have a lasting impact. None of the techniques and approaches are new, some have been used to good effect in school already, but Lesson Study has enabled us to really get beneath the surface of questioning and support each other in developing and furthering classroom practice in a way that no other form of professional development has been able to.